Luxembourg country overview

Luxembourg country overview

Map of Luxembourg

About NFP: 

The headquarters of the national focal point in Luxembourg are located within the Luxembourg Institute of Health (LIH). As a scientific research institute in the field of public health, LIH is a common welfare institution, which is partly financed by the National Administration. A series of synergies between the national focal point and specialised departments of the LIH allow for effective experience-sharing and management of technical, logistical and administrative activities.

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Last updated: Friday, May 20, 2016

Drug use among the general population and young people

Content for prevalence: 

To date, no representative large-scale general population survey on the use of psychoactive substances has been conducted in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Questions on the use of illicit drugs and new psychoactive substances have been included in the European Health Interview Survey launched in 2013 and the results are expected in 2016.

Comparable data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) national school surveys conducted in Luxembourg show a decrease in the prevalence of any illicit drug use from 1999 to 2010. In-depth analysis shows an overall decline in prevalence between 1999 and 2006 and some stabilisation subsequently. All common illicit drugs have followed declining prevalence trends with the notable exception of cocaine, which has shown an increase, particularly in those aged 15–16. Opiates use among school-aged children has been consistently low over the last decade.

Even though cannabis remains the most-used illicit drug by young people aged 12–18, a clear decline in lifetime prevalence of its use has been observed since the start of this century. Recent and current cannabis use prevalence rates declined remarkably between 1999 and 2006, and appear to have stabilised since then. Results of the 2009–10 and 2013–14 surveys indicated lifetime prevalence of cannabis use of 22 % and 18 % for males aged 15–16; this is a continuing decline when compared to the 2005–06 study (25 %). Lifetime prevalence of cannabis use for females of the same age was 15 % in 2009–10 and 18 % in 2013–14, below the 2005–06 rates (21 %); however, the figure for 2013–14 did not register a further decline. The 2009–10 HBSC study also found that a quarter of students aged 15–16 who had ever tried cannabis had done so three or more times within the past 12 months. Males reported more frequent heavy use, for example 40 or more episodes within the past 12 months, than did females of the same age group.

Information on use of the new psychoactive substances is available from the 2014 Eurobarometer. The data indicated that 7 % of 15- to 24-year-olds had used some kind of new psychoactive substance in their lifetime, which is comparable to a European Union average of 8 %.

Look for Prevalence of drug use in the 'Statistical bulletin' for more information


Content for prevention: 

The National Strategy and Action Plan on Drugs and Drug Addiction 2015–19 identifies prevention as a main intervention area in Luxembourg and aims to reduce initiation of drug use, delay the onset of drug use and encourage protective actions and healthy lifestyles in the general population and at-risk groups. The planning and implementation of drug prevention is under the authority of governmental actors and results from collaboration between the Ministry of Health, the National Drug Coordination Office, the Division of Preventive Medicine of the Directorate of Health and the National Drug Addiction Prevention Centre  (CePT).

The main objectives and features of the universal prevention policy are based on information provision and a holistic perspective that is not substance-specific. It is targeted at school settings, although drug-related information and prevention modules are not mandatory in school curricula. School-based programmes are usually implemented through joint cooperation between the government and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and teachers are offered specific training. Trained psychologists look out for problems or behaviours in relation to substance abuse that are still at a very early stage. Target groups are educational staff, pupils and parents. The national approach is based on the hypothesis that youngsters who are physically fit and mentally challenged, and who live in a stable, supportive environment with empathic parents, show a lower probability to use (abuse) drugs. Annual ‘adventure weeks’ aim to give youngsters the opportunity to experience group dynamics, conflict management, limit and risk assessment, and to experience a feeling of solidarity within a group of socially and culturally diverse people. The programme aims to reduce risk factors and enhance protection factors by focusing on the young people and their environment, rather than on drugs and addiction. Recent developments include the launch of the CePT Toolbox to assist with the implementation of school-based prevention activities, and the publication of recommendations for educational professionals on how to tackle cannabis in the school environment. Training modules on how to communicate with young people about psychotropic substances for professionals working with young people in non-formal environments have been created. In 2014 an introductory courses on prevention was introduced in the University of Luxembourg and the Police Academy, and training on cannabis and new psychoactive substances was provided for pedagogical staff.

Selective prevention focuses on avoiding social exclusion and on crisis interventions in schools, but activities are also carried out in recreational settings and with high-risk groups, such as polydrug users and those who show excessive use of alcoholic-mix drinks, and at-risk families. CHOICE is an early intervention programme for juvenile first-time offenders. Selective prevention is carried out in recreational settings via events such as music festivals, art performances, adventure days, theatre, media materials, seminars, travelling exhibitions and travel experiences. MAG-Net Party operates information points that provide information, earplugs, condoms, soap, breath testing and drinking water in recreational settings to minimise health risks. In 2014 a new service, DrUg CheCKing (DUCK), was launched in the framework of MAG-Net Party activities, to check the quality of substances used in recreational settings with the primary preventive aim  of gaining greater access to these consumer scenes. The Youth and Drug Help Foundation offers psychosocial help to drug-dependent parents and their children, and provides intervention to strengthen the parenting skills of drug-using mothers.

With regard to indicative prevention, early detection is a priority for children exhibiting high-risk behaviour in school settings and at home, and further interventions are provided through psychiatric care services.

The characteristics of prevention activities in Luxembourg are a strong focus on developing the capacity of professionals through various training and information activities, and involvement in cross-border prevention projects.

See the Prevention profile for Luxembourg for more information. 

Problem drug use

Content for problem drug use: 

Up to 2012 the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) defined problem drug use as injecting drug use or long duration/regular use of opiates, cocaine and/or amphetamines. However, in 2012 a new definition of ‘high-risk drug use’ was adopted. The new definition includes ‘problem drug use’, but is broader (mainly in its inclusion of high-risk use of more substances). Details are available here.

A 2009 study estimated that there were around 1 907 injecting drug users in Luxembourg (range: 1 524–2 301), or 5.68 per 1 000 inhabitants aged 15–64 (range: 4.54–6.9).

The same study yielded an estimate of problem drug users of 6.2 per 1 000 inhabitants aged 15–64 (range: 4.6–7.83), which is lower than previous estimates for 1999, 2000, 2003 and 2007.

The 2007 study indicated that there were around 1 900 problem heroin users in Luxembourg (range: 1 608–2 463), or 5.9 per 1 000 inhabitants aged 15–64 (range: 5.00–7.60).

Updated prevalence data on high-risk use at the national level will be available by the end of 2016.

Look for High-risk drug use in the Statistical bulletin for more information. 

Treatment demand

Content for treatment demand: 

Drug treatment demand data are reported by the Réseau Luxembourgeois d’Information sur les Stupéfiants (RELIS), a multi-sectoral drug monitoring system covering both public and private partners. The data on treatment demand for 2014 were reported from six outpatient, five inpatient and one low-threshold treatment units, and also from treatment units in two prisons. In 2014 a total of 271 clients entered treatment, 28 of whom were new clients entering treatment for the first time. The number of people requiring treatment has steadily increased in recent years.

In 2014 opioids, largely heroin, were the main substance used by all treatment clients (54 % or 146 clients), followed by cannabis (25 % or 69 clients) and cocaine (20 % or 54 clients). In recent years an increase in cannabis treatment demands has been reported. Slightly less than half of all opioid users entering treatment injected their primary illicit drug. In terms of gender distribution,78 % of all clients and 85 % of new clients were male.

Look for Treatment demand indicator in the Statistical bulletin for more information. 

Drug-related infectious diseases

Content for drug-related infectious diseases: 

Data on drug-related infectious diseases are collected at the national level through the National Retrovirology Laboratory of LIH. Between 1984 and 2014 a total of 1 384 people were registered with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 156 of whom were people who inject drugs (PWID) (11.6 % of the total). Drug injection was the third most prevalent route of HIV transmission after homo/bisexual and heterosexual transmission. The proportion of HIV cases related to injecting drug use decreased significantly over the period 1998–2011, but has been showing an increasing trend from 2012 onwards. In 2014 a total of 16 of 69 new HIV cases reported in Luxembourg were related to injecting drug use (according to the data from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control).

Data on HIV prevalence rates among drug users are available through the multi-sector national network RELIS and are based on self-reports. In 2014 the prevalence rate of HIV infections based on self-reports was 5.94 % (1.9 % in 2013, 4.84 % in 2012; 4.26% in 2011) among those with current injecting drug use experience.

The study (2007) on the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) showed a serology-based prevalence rate among people who injected drugs in 2005 of 71.4 % for HCV, 21.6 % for HBV and 2.9 % for HIV. A new serology-based study on HIV and hepatitis infections in drug users is currently being carried out and first results will be available by 2017.

Look for Drug-related infectious diseases in the Statistical bulletin for more information. 

Drug-induced deaths and mortality

Content for drug-induced deaths: 

In Luxembourg, the Special Registry for drug-induced deaths is run by the Specialised Drug Department of the Judicial Police Service (SPJ), which maintains a register of all cases of direct overdose caused by illicit drug use and documented by forensic evidence. Data extraction and reporting from this register are in line with the EMCDDA definitions and recommendations.

The General Mortality Registry is located in the Statistical Department of the Directorate of Health, which indexes all deaths according to ICD-10 that have occurred in Luxembourg, by means of death certificates provided by general practitioners.

The number of fatal overdoses registered by the Special Registry showed an increasing trend from 1997 (nine cases) to 2000 (26 cases), decreasing to an almost historic low level of eight cases in 2005. The trend then increased again, with 19 confirmed cases in 2006 and 27 in 2007. In 2014 eight confirmed cases were reported, which indicates an overall and persistent decline since early 2000. With regard to distribution by sex, seven of the cases were male. The mean age of the victims was 37.7 years. Toxicological evidence confirmed the presence of opioids (heroin or methadone) in seven registered deaths.

The drug-induced mortality rate among adults (15–64) in Luxembourg was 21.1 deaths per million in 2014, higher than the most recent European average of 19.2 deaths per million.

Look for Drug-related deaths in the Statistical bulletin for more information. 

Treatment responses

Content for treatment responses: 

Specialised drug treatment infrastructure in Luxembourg relies on governmental support and control. Treatment is decentralised and is most commonly provided by state-accredited NGOs. Most of these specialised agencies have signed an agreement with the Ministry of Health that guarantees their annual funding. NGOs involved in drug treatment fall under the obligations of the so-called ASFT law (8/09/98) and the subsequent Grand-ducal Decree of 10 December 1998, both of which regulate the relationship (duties and rights) between the state on one side, and NGOs or organisations providing psycho-medical-social and therapeutic care on the other side.

The overall management of these agencies is ensured by a ‘coordination platform’ that includes three members of the institution, and at least one representative from the competent ministry. All major decisions must be approved by the coordination platform. All institutions work in close collaboration and could be viewed as an interdependent therapeutic chain, and a number of collaboration agreements between agencies were signed in 2008 and 2009 to ensure thorough care and rational use of available resources. With the exception of detoxification departments, all treatment units or agencies accept any drug-using patient, irrespective of the type of substances that are involved. Detoxification treatment is provided by five different hospitals via their respective psychiatric units.

There are six specialist outpatient treatment facilities, one low-threshold agency, four hospital-based drug treatment units and one therapeutic community. Two treatment units are available in prisons. While outpatient treatment is provided free of charge, inpatient treatment is covered by health insurance. The programme within the residential therapeutic community is divided into three progressive phases, and the duration varies from three months up to one year. The programme offers special treatment opportunities to pregnant women, drug-using couples and mothers with children. An outpatient centre and a non-specialist residential centre admit young problem drug users. A dedicated psychosocial and medical care programme is operational in the national prison (Programme Tox).

Opioid substitution treatment (OST) is usually delivered through office-based medical doctors. In addition, a multidisciplinary OST programme is provided by the Jugend-an Drogenhëllef Foundation, which mainly provides liquid oral methadone. In 2002 the Grand-ducal Decree on substitution programmes of 30 January 2002 was approved; this regulates OST in general by means of substitution treatment licences granted to specialist medical doctors and specialist agencies. The referred legal framework lists medicines for substitution, including methadone, buprenorphine, morphine-based medications and heroin within the framework of a pilot project. With regard to the cost of treatment, medical interventions and counselling are covered by health insurance, while the state covers pharmaceutical costs and pharmacy fees. In 2014 there were 1 121 clients in OST, with 95 % of the clients receiving methadone maintenance treatment and the rest buprenorphine-based treatment, indicating that the number of clients had stabilised following a rather steep increase between 2008–10. OST is also available in prisons and 209 prisoners received OST in 2014.

See the Treatment profile for Luxembourg for additional information. 

Harm reduction responses

Content for harm reduction responses: 

A legal framework for a series of harm reduction measures, such as needle and syringe exchange and supervised injection rooms, was established in 2001 when the basic drug law of 1973 was amended. However, harm reduction interventions had already been initiated and developed prior to the new legal framework. The law amendment in 2001 allowed existing interventions to be maintained and further developed, and new services such as drug consumption rooms and medically assisted heroin distribution to be implemented.

The first and until now only injection room at the national level opened in July 2005 and has been integrated into the low-threshold emergency centre for drug users. Up to 2014 a total of 1 355 clients had signed the facility’s mandatory user contract, and more than 42 000 injections were supervised by trained staff during the year. In 2012 the facility opened a room where drugs can be inhaled under supervision (blow room). A second supervised drug consumption room is planned in the southern part of the country for 2016/17. The set-up of a heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) programme is planned in the governmental programme and it is expected that HAT will be introduced as a complementary treatment option in 2016.

The National Drug Strategy 2015–19 includes activities to reduce drug-related risks and harms, and the National HIV/AIDS Action Plan for 2011–15 aimed to prevent infectious diseases among drug-using populations through harm reduction interventions.

The national needle and syringe exchange programme in Luxembourg is decentralised and consists of five fixed sites, one of which was opened in 2014, and three vending machines situated in the towns most affected by injecting drug use. Clean syringes are available from drug counselling centres, drop-in centres for sex workers and at-risk populations, and low-threshold services. Needle and syringe exchange is also provided at two prison-based sites. Apart from needles and syringes, testing for blood-borne infectious disease, vaccinations and counselling on safe use practices are also provided. In 2012 a mobile medical care unit was launched as an additional service, facilitating the provision of primary medical care at low-threshold agencies. A majority of RELIS-indexed PWID obtain clean syringes from specialised agencies, followed by pharmacies. Specialised agencies have gained in importance in the provision of sterile injection equipment in recent years.

The number of sterile syringes distributed in the framework of the national needle exchange programme has constantly increased since it was first implemented in 1993, when 76 000 syringes were distributed, reaching a peak in 2005 when 435 000 syringes were given out. Syringe demand has significantly decreased in more recent years, and numbers fell to 253 000 syringes in 2014, showing, however, an increasing trend compared to 2012 and 2013.

See the Harm reduction overview for Luxembourg for additional information. 

Drug markets and drug-law offences

Content for Drug markets and drug-law offences: 

Data on seizures and drug-law offences are reported to the national focal point by the Specialised Drug Department of the Judicial Police Service (SPJ). The number of police records for presumed offences against the modified 1973 drug law showed a stable trend between 1996 and 1998, a significant increase between 1998 and 2003 (825 to 1 660), and remained relatively stable between 2004 and 2008. In 2009 and 2010 the number increased to 2 546, but it then shown a declining trend, falling to 1 802 in 2012, while 2013 and 2014 saw an increase to respectively 2 069 and 2 816 reported drug-law offences.

The number of drug-law offenders (prévenus) declined from 1 368 in 1996 to 1 170 in 1998, peaked in 2003, but showed a significant decline from 2003 to 2008. The number increased to 2 530 in 2010, fell to 1 782 in 2012, and increased again in 2013 (2 066) and 2014 (2 792). The majority of drug-law offences relate to cannabis, followed by heroin and cocaine.

The national production and manufacture of illicit drugs appears to be insignificant in terms of quantities and quality. In 2014 no clandestine laboratories were dismantled at the national level. Cannabis-growing sites are not discovered on a regular basis, and when they are they are very limited in terms of quantity (mainly for private use). The majority of illicit substances consumed in Luxembourg originate from the Netherlands (cannabis production and transit of other drugs), Belgium (ecstasy and amphetamine-type stimulants production) and Morocco (cannabis). Cocaine found on the national market originates from Latin America and mostly transits from the south of Europe to the Netherlands via France, Switzerland, Austria and Germany. Heroin follows the main Balkan route via Poland.

The drug provision sources and distribution networks are assumed to be highly organised in Luxembourg, and have managed to significantly increase the availability of illicit substances at the national level. In recent years some de-localisation of the drug trade to less visible locations and settings, such as private apartments, bars or motorway rest areas, has occurred.

A longitudinal data analysis indicated a general decreasing tendency of heroin, cocaine and cannabis seizures and amounts of substances seized until 2002. However, since 2002 there have been great variations in the number of seizures and amount seized. Between 2003–10 the number of herbal cannabis seizures increased, followed by a slight decrease in 2011–12, while in 2014 a record number of 1 015 herbal cannabis seizures were reported, which resulted in 12.718 kg of substance seized. Although the number of cannabis resin seizures in 2012–14 was significantly less than in the previous period, the amount of substance seized increased sevenfold in 2013 when compared to 2012 (8.37 kg and 1.31 kg respectively), but fell again to 1.203 kg in 2014. One recent concern is the seizure of cannabis products with high tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration, and also large THC concentration variations in the samples seized. The number of heroin seizures declined between 1999–2004, subsequently increasing and then stabilising at 234–254 seizures between 2005–07, after which the number increased in 2009–10 (289 and 292 seizures respectively) and fell to 127 in 2013. In 2014 a total of 150 seizures involving heroin were reported. This pattern was not repeated in the amount seized, as in 2009–10 the amount seized declined, while a record amount of 24 kg of heroin was seized in 2011. In 2012 and 2013 the total amount of heroin seized was 2.65 kg and 3.81 kg respectively, but this increased to 6.732 g in 2014. In 2014 the number of cocaine seizures slightly increased when compared to 2013 (169 and 115 seizures respectively). In 2013 less than 1 kg of cocaine substance was seized, and in 2014 this increased to 4.695 kg. The first national seizures of ecstasy-type substances (MDMA, MDA, etc.) were recorded in 1994. A record number of 9 478 ecstasy tablets were seized in 2009, in subsequent years falling to only 13 tablets seized in 2013. In 2014, however, the amount of MDMA seized has increased for the first time since 2010 (247 tablets).

Look for Drug-law offences in the Statistical bulletin for additional data. 

National drug laws

Content for National drug laws: 

In 2001 the national drug law was amended to decriminalise cannabis use and personal possession. It became an illegal activity that would result in a fine, and prison sentences would only be given if there were aggravating circumstances (e.g. use in schools or in the presence of minors). Users of other illicit substances risk between eight days and six months of imprisonment and/or a fine. Prosecution may be halted or penalties reduced in cases where a drug user has taken steps to seek specialised help.

The law does not specify a difference between small-scale and large-scale drug deals or distribution. The respective sentences currently range from 1–5 years’ imprisonment and/or a fine, while imprisonment of 5–10 years is applied if the distributed drug has caused severe damage to health (e.g. an incurable disease). If the drugs had fatal consequences for the user, the punishment may increase to 15–20 years.

Go to the European Legal Database on Drugs (ELDD) for additional information. 

National drug strategy

Content for National drug strategy: 

Luxembourg’s National Strategy and Action Plan on Drugs and Drug Addiction 2015–2019 was developed following the 2014 evaluation of the previous strategy. Like its predecessor, the strategy takes a comprehensive approach and addresses illicit drugs, alcohol, tobacco, psychotropic drugs and other addictive behaviours not related to substance use. The strategy is built around the two pillars of drug demand and drug supply reduction and the four transversal themes of harm reduction, research and information, international cooperation, and coordination. Its overall objective is to contribute to achieving a high level of protection in terms of public health, public security and social cohesion. This high-level objective is in turn supported by six sub-objectives across the strategy’s pillars and transversal axis. The implementation of the strategy is supported by a 60-point plan that spreads the actions across the pillars and transversal areas.

Coordination mechanism in the field of drugs

Content for Coordination mechanism in the field of drugs: 

At the national level, coordination among different ministries involved in the drugs area takes place through the Inter-ministerial Commission on Drugs (ICD). The Commission has been chaired since 2006 by the National Drug Coordinator, who is appointed by the Minister of Health. It is composed of senior delegates from the main governmental departments, the Ministry of Health and invited experts, and constitutes the top advisory level with respect to coordination and orientation of drug actions. Both the ICD and the Ministry of Health are responsible for the implementation of national drugs strategies and action plans, supervising field activities and guaranteeing an effective consultation process with other ministries. While the National Drug Coordinator is responsible for coordination in the area of demand reduction, the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs are, respectively, responsible for supply reduction and international cooperation.

Public expenditure

Content for Public expenditure: 

In 2009 the National Drug Coordinator set the 2010–14 Action Plan priorities, identifying concrete actions and planned budgets. In 2014 the Drug Strategy and Action Plan 2010–14 were evaluated by an external entity. Additionally, the Government approves annually several drug-related budget lines. Estimates of total expenditures spent are also available; these are based on a well-defined methodology established in 2002 (1, 2). Last but not least, over the past 10 years the concepts of implementation follow-up and evaluation have grown in importance, and at the end of each planning cycle a policy evaluation takes place in this field.

In 2009 total public expenditure (3) was estimated at 0.1 % of gross domestic product (GDP), with unlabelled expenditure representing 65 % of the total. Most expenditure was spent on public order and safety (57 %) and health (41 %) (Table 1).

Trend analysis shows that between 2005 and 2009 drug-related public expenditure remained stable, ranging between 0.09 % and 0.11 % of GDP. Expenditure fell by 3.8 % in 2009 (probably associated to the public austerity measures that followed the 2008 economic recession), but since 2011 partial data suggest that expenditure has increased at a steady annual rate.


Table 1: Total drug-related expenditure, 2009


Labelled expenditure (thousand EUR)

Unlabelled expenditure (thousand EUR)

Total (thousand EUR)

% of total


COFOG classification (a)





Public order and safety

4 839

17 057

21 896



7 969

7 750

15 719







General public services





Recreation, culture and religion











13 557 (b)

24 881 (b)

38 438


% of total





% of GDP





(a) According to the United Nations Classification of the Functions of Government (COFOG) Eurostat data sources.

(b) EMCDDA estimations.

Source: National Annual Report of Luxembourg (2010).

(1) Origer, A. (2002), Le coût économique direct de la politique et des interventions publiques en matière d’usage illicite de drogues au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, National Focal Point, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.

(2) Origer, A. (2010), ‘Update of direct economic costs of national drug policies in 2009’, National report on the state of the drugs problem in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, Point focal OEDT Luxembourg — CRP-Santé, Luxembourg.

(3) Some of the funds allocated by governments for expenditure on tasks related to drugs are identified as such in the budget (‘labelled’). Often, however, the bulk of drug-related expenditure is not identified (‘unlabelled’) and must be estimated by modelling approaches. The total budget is the sum of labelled and unlabelled drug-related expenditures.

Drug-related research

Content for Drug-related research: 

The current National Action Plan on Drugs and Drug Addiction 2015–19 explicitly refers to research as an integrated part of the transversal axes of demand and supply reduction. Research domains include a wide variety of areas, and the national focal point is the national reference centre for drug-related research. It also manages most of the available funds in this area, provided by the National Research Fund and the National Fund Against Certain Forms of Criminality. Other relevant research actors include the National Prevention Centre for Drug Addiction, university departments, National Toxicology Laboratory and external experts. The national focal point also disseminates research information through its website and presents new research studies to the national press. Research findings also play an important role in training programmes for professionals in this area. Current focus is placed on research addressing drug-related mortality. In 2015 a research project investigating the existence of a social gradient in fatal drug overdoses was finalised and the results have been published in a peer-reviewed journal.

See Drug-related research for more detailed information. 

Data sheet — key statistics on the drug situation

Content for Data sheet: 

        EU range      
  Year   Country data Min. Max.      
Problem opioid use (rate/1 000) 2007   5.9 0.2 10.7      
All clients entering treatment (%) 2014   53.9% 4% 90%      
New clients entering treatment (%) 2014   46.4% 2% 89%      
Purity — heroin brown (%) 2014   13.5% 7% 52%      
Price per gram — heroin brown (EUR) 2013   EUR 33 EUR 23 EUR 140      
Prevalence of drug use — schools (%) :   : 1% 5%      
Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%) :   : 0% 4%      
Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%) :   : 0% 2%      
All clients entering treatment (%) 2014   19.9% 0% 38%      
New clients entering treatment (%) 2014   25.0% 0% 40%      
Purity (%) 2014   38.1% 20% 64%      
Price per gram (EUR) 2013   EUR 82 EUR 47 EUR 107      
Prevalence of drug use — schools (%) :   : 1% 7%      
Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%) :   : 0% 3%      
Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%) :   : 0% 1%      
All clients entering treatment (%) 2014   0.0% 0% 70%      
New clients entering treatment (%) 2014   0.0% 0% 75%      
Purity (%) 2014   11.4% 1% 49%      
Price per gram (EUR) 2013   EUR 10 EUR 3 EUR 63      
Prevalence of drug use — schools (%) :   : 1% 4%      
Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%) :   : 0% 6%      
Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%) :   : 0% 2%      
All clients entering treatment (%) 2014   : 0% 2%      
New clients entering treatment (%) 2014   0.0% 0% 2%      
Purity (mg of MDMA base per unit) 2014   54 mg 27 mg 131 mg      
Price per tablet (EUR) 2013   EUR 8 EUR 4 EUR 16      
Prevalence of drug use — schools (%) :   : 5% 42%      
Prevalence of drug use — young adults (%) :   : 0% 24%      
Prevalence of drug use — all adults (%) :   : 0% 11%      
All clients entering treatment (%) 2014   25.5% 3% 63%      
New clients entering treatment (%) 2014   28.6% 7% 77%      
Potency — herbal (%) 2014   11.2% 3% 15%      
Potency — resin (%) 2014   17.0% 3% 29%      
Price per gram — herbal (EUR) 2013   EUR 15 EUR 3 EUR 23      
Price per gram — resin (EUR) 2013   EUR 7 EUR 3 EUR 22      
Prevalence of problem drug use                
Problem drug use (rate/1 000) 2009   6.16 2.7 10.0      
Injecting drug use (rate/1 000) 2009   5.7 0.2 9.2      
Drug-related infectious diseases/deaths                
HIV infections newly diagnosed (cases / million) 2014   29.1 0.0 50.9      
HIV prevalence (%) 2014   4.5% 0% 31%      
HCV prevalence (%) 2005   80.7–90.7 15% 84%      
Drug-related deaths (rate/million) 2014   21.1 2.4 113.2      
Health and social responses                
Syringes distributed 2014   253 011 382 7 199 660      
Clients in substitution treatment 2014   1 121 178 161 388      
Treatment demand                
All clients 2014   271 271 100 456      
New clients 2014   28 28 35 007      
All clients with known primary drug 2014   271 271 97 068      
New clients with known primary drug 2014   28 28 34 088      
Drug law offences                
Number of reports of offences 2013   2 069 537 282 177      
Offences for use/possession 2013   1 015 13 398 422      

Key national figures and statistics

Content for Key national figures and statistics: 

b Break in time series.

e Estimated.

p Eurostat provisional value.

: Not available.

1 Gross domestic product (GDP) is a measure of economic activity. It is defined as the value of all goods and services produced less the value of any goods or services used in their creation. The volume index of GDP per capita in Purchasing Power Standards (PPS) is expressed in relation to the European Union (EU-27) average set to equal 100. If the index of a country is higher than 100, this country's level of GDP per head is higher than the EU average and vice versa.

2  Expenditure on social protection contains: benefits, which consist of transfers in cash or in kind to households and individuals to relieve them of the burden of a defined set of risks or needs.

3 Unemployment rates represent unemployed persons as a percentage of the labour force. Unemployed persons comprise persons aged 15 to 74 who were: (a) without work during the reference week; (b) currently available for work; (c) actively seeking work.

4 Situation of penal institutions on 1 September, 2014.

5 Share of persons aged 0+ with an equivalent disposable income below the at-risk-of-poverty threshold, which is set at 60 % of the national median equivalised disposable income (after social transfers).

Key figures
  Year   EU (28 countries) Source
Population  2014 549 680 506 944 075 bep Eurostat
Population by age classes 15–24  2014 12.0 % 11.3 % bep Eurostat
25–49  38.4 %  34.7 % bep
50–64  18.7 % 19.9 % bep
GDP per capita in PPS (Purchasing Power Standards) 1  2014 266 100 Eurostat
Total expenditure on social protection (% of GDP) 2  2013 23.1 % : Eurostat
Unemployment rate 3  2015 6.4% 9.4 % Eurostat
Unemployment rate of population aged under 25 years  2015 16.3 % 20.3 % Eurostat
Prison population rate (per 100 000 of national population) 4  2014 119.3  : Council of Europe, SPACE I-2014.1
At risk of poverty rate 5  2014 16.4 % 17.2 % SILC

Contact information for our focal point

Address and contact: 

Luxembourg Institute of Health, Point Focal OEDT

1A-1B , rue Thomas Edison
L-1445 Strassen

Tel. +352 453113
Fax +352 453219

Head of natioanl focal point: Mr Alain Origer, Ph.D.

E-mail addresses have been inserted in a way discouraging spam. Please replace [a] by @ before actually using any of the e-mail addresses